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1 year ago

The studied streams act mostly as channels for the

The essential role of precipitation in the exchange of materials within the catchment reveals the vulnerability of these aquatic systems to fluctuations in the climate. North Patagonia is experiencing changes in precipitation and temperature, particularly the pronounced fluctuation in the frequency and intensity of rainfall is affecting the hydrological cycles (IPCC, 2007a, IPCC, 2007b and Marengo et al., 2009), while the rise in temperature is evaporation causing the glacial melt (Masiokas et al., 2008).

1 year ago

FPDs R The treatment and recovery of FPDs

A similar behaviour is observed for aluminium recovery. Despite being beneficial for most of the impact categories, it implies burdens in the impact category human toxicity (non-cancer effects). This is mainly related to the production of zinc, which is used as alloying element in the melting process for secondary aluminium production.
The burden in the impact category ozone depletion is mainly due to the presence of CFCs in the waste, and thus to their direct emission into the TH287 when they are incinerated.
Polyurethane landfilling gives a burden to the marine eutrophication impact indicator, as a consequence of the direct emissions of nitrogen compounds in the water compartment.
3.2.2. Large household appliances (R2)
The main benefits of the treatment and recovery of the large household appliances (category R2) derive from metals (ferrous scraps and metals in cables, motors and in the stream “PS plastics + metals”) and plastic recovery (from stream “PS plastics + metals”).

1 year ago

Farmers in the Be ccedil a

Fig. 3. Relationship between (a) fire frequency and burned area; (b) fire frequency and risk of forest fire, in the Beça River basin.Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide
Fig. 4. Plot of burned area (period 1990–2013) versus class of wildfire risk (evaluation in 2011), considering the frequency of wildfires in that SAR191801 period: (a) one occurrence, (b) two occurrences, (c) three occurrences and (d) four occurrences; the five occurrence diagram has not been represented because of its limited spatial coverage and doubtful statistical significance. In the trend line equations, variable n represents the class of wildfire risk: 1 — low, 2 — low-moderate, 3 — moderate, 4 — high, 5 — very high.Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide
As evidenced in Fig. 2a, 16,396 ha of land were burned between 1990 and 2013, which corresponds to 47% of the basin area. A major portion of sedimentary rock land was represented by shrub land (69%) and forests (22%), with the remaining 9% being mostly represented by heterogeneous agricultural areas (usually, a mosaic of farmlands and shrub lands, with isolated spots of forests). The maxima of burned area occurred in 2005, 2009 and 2010, with values above 2000 ha (Fig. 5). In 2010, the burned area (5000 ha) approximately doubled the area consumed by fire in 2005 (2440 ha). Besides, the areas burned in the last decade (58% of total burned area) were much more extensive than the areas burned in the previous 15 years (42%).

1 year ago

A dramatically different trend was found for

On the contrary, with excitation wavelength of 532 nm (corresponding to the maximum emission of green LEDs), the NdT catalyst showed a very higher reflectance value with respect to complete flower one at 434 nm. In summary, when NdT/OP is excited at 532 nm with green LEDs, OP nanoparticles emit at 434 nm, subsequently, the up-converted visible photons were absorbed by NdT leading to a better efficiency in MB photocatalytic degradation than NdT photocatalyst following a mechanism similar to that one found by Zhang et al. [32].

1 year ago

Table Particle diameters of different

Commercial Y2O3 (99.99% pure, Huizhou Ruier Rare Chemical Hi-Tech Co. Ltd., Huizhou, China) powder was used as the starting material. The powder has a BET surface area of 31.5 m2/g. X-ray diffractometric (XRD) analysis indicated that the Y2O3 powder was a cubic-structured polymorph and the crystallite size calculated from Scherrer\'s equation is 19 nm. In a typical processing, 60 g starting Y2O3 powder was dispersed in ethyl alcohol with the addition of sulfuric VX-702 and 2 wt% of dispersant (ammonium salt of poly(methacrylic acid)), and then the suspensions were ball milled in polyurethane jars filled with ZrO2 balls for 8 h. The amounts of added sulfuric acid were expressed as a molar percentage of the Y2O3 powder basis (mol%). For comparison purpose, the starting Y2O3 powder without sulfuric acid addition was also ball-milled identically. The resultant suspensions were then dried at 110 °C, followed by sieving through a 200-mesh nylon sieve for pulverization. After sieving, the powder was calcined at 900–1200 °C for 4 h in furnace in a stagnant air condition. The green compacts were prepared by dry pressing at 100 MPa, followed by hydrostatical isostatic pressing under a pressure of 200 MPa.

1 year ago

Fig nbsp xA Relationship between toxicity

Chlorpyrifos concentrations were below levels of concern with respect to both H. azteca and C. dilutus (96-h EC50s of 96 and 510 to 750 ng/l, respectively; Weston and Lydy, 2010a and Pape-Lindstrom and Lydy, 1997). Similarly, imidacloprid 'Radotinib(IY-5511)' concentrations at creek sites (typically < 70 ng/l; maximum 1462 ng/l) were below reported toxicity thresholds for the two Radotinib(IY-5511) tested and were unlikely to have played a role in observed effects. C. dilutus is a relatively sensitive species, with an imidacloprid 96-h LC50 of 5750 ng/l, with concentrations about half of endosymbiosis reported to inhibit growth ( Stoughton et al., 2008; though those tests were done with a specific commercial formulation, making comparisons to our data difficult). The reported H. azteca imidacloprid 96-h LC50s are 65,430 and 526,000 ng/l ( Stoughton et al., 2008 and England and Bucksath, 1991 as reported by Stoughton et al.), with a 96-h EC50 (immobilization) of 55,000 ng/l, and growth effects with as little as 2220 ng/l ( Stoughton et al., 2008; using a specific commercial formulation).

1 year ago

Fig presents the load resistance dependences of

Since the phase angles of three types of regenerators were almost the same shown in Fig. 7, the difference between the net output acoustic powers with three regenerator types was mainly determined by flow resistance loss. Fig. 8 gives the amplitudes of the pressure waves in the UM 729 and expansion spaces with different load resistances. Because the displacement of the alternators were fixed at 6 mm, the pressure amplitudes in the expansion space represented by dashed line in Fig. 8 were quite similar.